When your reaching your finalised logo, you should bear in mind how usable it will be when you come to use the logo in the future. Therefore, consider the background of your logo before finalising your logo.
The safest option is white as any logo displayed on a white background will be as legible as possible and provides the maximum contrast and will mean that the logo will look good on letterheads and stationery.
However, the white background also means that it is a blank canvas, meaning it doesn’t convey any additional meaning which may be beneficial or a hindrance, depending on the use.
Black can make bright colours look brighter and give deeper emotional impact and make a logo stand out if the colours chosen are suitable – placing a dark brown logo on a black background simply won’t work and will be lost in the background.
However, it also means you’ll have to accept a reasonably dark website and stationery, as the logo will then only work on darker backgrounds.
Choosing a coloured background means you can convey deeper meaning than the logo design alone – depending on the colour chosen.
However, it faces the same problems as black, you’re going to have to work with your chosen colour into your branding and use it across your website and stationery design.
You also have to be sure of the colour choice conveys the right message about your brand.
Adding a patterned background to a logo means you can add additional visual elements to the design and can form a strong statement on their own. It also makes the logo more memorable to boot.
However, the pattern can also create more problems than a coloured background – for example, when creating a website or stationery, they need to consider the pattern as well as the background when working with your logo.
Having a transparent background means you can place your logo on the widest possible number of backgrounds but in of itself doesn’t convey anything further, just like white.
However, you can always use your logo on any colour background and it should show up fairly clearly.
Just bear in mind that your logo may not play very well on a white background if your logo is light coloured and vice versa.